Himachal Dental


Treatment Of Sleep Apnea

Posted in General Dentistry by UK Dental Tourism on July 3, 2010
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You may well have heard of sleep apnea. There has been a lot of coverage of this condition in the media over the last few years but many people are still confused about the exact nature of apnea, what causes it and how it can be treated.

The most important thing to realise is that sleep apnea is not simply the same as snoring or even a variant of it. Snoring is cause by soft tissue vibrating when breathing during sleep. Apnea is the complete cessation of breathing during sleep and the noise of choking associated with this. As you can see it is definitely a more serious problem than but there are two variants of sleep apnea that are very distinct.

The most common signs people should be aware of include: excessive sleepiness during the day, and repeated shortness of breath while sleeping. Your bed partner may be the first one to notice these apnea indicators

The sleep apnea disorder may also have associated features which helps people ascertain if they have the condition or not. Some of these sleep apnea symptoms include;

– loud snoring
– depression
– heartburn
– high blood pressure
– irritability
– dry mouth after waking up
– having trouble concentrating or remembering
– in some cases, insomnia
– morning or night headaches
– unexpected gain in weight

Sleep apnea symptoms differ from person to person, and some patients even suffer from multiple of these signs. To help diagnose the severity of the said sleep disorder, a sleep apnea test can be taken.

The first is called obstructive sleep apnea and occurs when the airway becomes blocked by a collapsing soft palate at the back of the throat. This will eventually right itself after a few seconds but can happen many times during the course of a night. This is the less serious form of apnea and can usually be treated with an appliance from your dentist.

The other kind of apnea is called central sleep apnea and is concerned with an interruption in the central respiratory part of the brain, which forgets to send a message to the lungs to breath. As you can imagine this is a slightly more serious problem and needs more serious medical attention. Central sleep apnea can be the underlying cause of stress, anxiety, fatigue and in extreme cases, even death. If you are concerned about sleep apnea of any kind then you need to make an appointment with your dentist to have the problem treated as soon as you can.

No doubt you’re tired and not thinking too clearly. For the great majority of sufferers there is only one option offered – CPAP. It is not an easy solution to accept and has many drawbacks. But for those suffering with daytime fatigue and worry over long term serious health effects, it is a lifeline.

However, it’s important to understand that there are CPAP alternatives.Let’s start with the easy ones!Here are some alternative sleep apnea treatments that are the easy to do – but they will not completely cure your apnea. What they WILL do is help you to get a better night’s sleep while you are looking into permanent apnea solutions.

# Change your sleeping position involving sleeping on your side, instead of on your back.
#Breathing solutions which include nasal strips and saline drops.
#Didgeridoo therapy involving breathe control therapy focusing on strengthening the airway muscles and calming.
#Lifestyle changes that can improve apnea include the reduction or elimination of drinking, smoking, and drugs.
#Dental device (also called Oral device)that is worn in the mouth to bed and holds your jaw in a forward position, which opens your airway. After a referral from your doctor, a dentist will make a mold of your teeth and create a mouthpiece.
#Acupuncture which may facilitate release of body-healing hormones.
#Throat surgery – especially if your apnea is caused by a problem with the structure of your airway.These include the removal of the uvula, adenoids, and tonsils. Other procedures involve stiffening of the upper throat with implants, and repositioning (advancement) of your tongue.
#Nasal surgery can be an effective treatment for some sleep apnea sufferers. Nasal surgery can include any of the following types of surgery:

o Straightening of the septum
o Reduction in size of the turbinates, either through tissue removal or radio frequency to reduce underlying bony structure
o Removal of inflamed or infected tissue in the sinuses
o Enlargement or removal of bony tissue in the upper sinus area

Sleep apnea can be the underlying cause of stress and anxiety in everyday life as it prevents the sufferer getting the necessary amount of proper sleep. More worryingly though is the fact that it can put an enormous strain on the heart which can lead to heart disease and even fatal heart attacks. If you or a loved one is suffering from sleep apnea it is important that they see a dentist for diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible.

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Form of Mercury in Older Dental Fillings Unlikely to be Toxic

University of Saskatchewan research team found that surface forms of mercury in older “silver” fillings (also known as amalgams) may be less toxic than previously thought. But due to the significant mercury loss over time, human exposure to mercury lost from fillings is “still of concern” and that further research is needed to determine when, how and in what form mercury is lost from fillings.  Despite the fact that their finding is far from conclusive, we still should have our old fillings checked during our routine visits (at least once every 6  months) to our dentist.

Dental Amalgam ( Mercury) Fillings may be less toxic than previously thought.

Amid the on-going controversy over the safety of mercury-containing dental fillings, a University of Saskatchewan research team has shed new light on how the chemical forms of mercury at the surface of fillings change over time.an amalgam filling

Their work, just published in the American Chemical Society journal Chemical Research in Toxicology, shows that the surface forms of mercury in older “silver” fillings (also known as amalgams) may be less toxic than previously thought.

“The dental amalgam on the surface of an old tooth filling may have lost as much as 95 per cent of its mercury but what’s left is in a form that is unlikely to be toxic in the body,” said U of S Canada Research Chair Graham George who led the study.

But the team cautions that due to the significant mercury loss over time, human exposure to mercury lost from fillings is “still of concern” and that further research is needed to determine when, how and in what form mercury is lost from fillings.

Mercury-based fillings have been used by dentists to repair teeth for well over a century. But in recent decades, their use has become controversial due to concerns about exposure to potentially toxic mercury.

“Mercury can potentially exist in several different chemical forms, each with a different toxicity,” said George. “Prior to our work, little was known about how the chemical forms of mercury in dental amalgam might change over time.”

The team used a special X-ray technique at the Stanford Sychrotron Radiation Lightsource to probe the amount and chemical nature of mercury at the surface of both freshly prepared metal fillings and aged fillings (about 20 years old) obtained from the U of S dental clinic’s tooth bank.

While the fresh fillings contained metallic mercury, which can be toxic, aged fillings contained a form of mercury called beta-mercuric sulfide or metacinnabar which is unlikely to be toxic in the body. For this reason, grinding or polishing during dental cleaning is unlikely to cause any toxic effects.

But of potential greater concern is the nature of the surface mercury lost from fillings. This may be due to evaporation (with subsequent inhalation and leaching of mercury into saliva), exposure to some kinds of dental hygiene products such as those containing peroxides, exposure to certain sulphur-containing foods (such as onion and garlic or coffee), or other factors.

“Possibly this missing mercury is in the less toxic form of mercury (metacinnabar) abraded from the surface of the filling. Or alternatively, it may be mercury lost prior to formation of the metacinnabar through various types of exposures,” said George.

Because of its durability, dental amalgam (mercury based) are still widely used in North America and other developed countries. With new types of tooth colored fillings, most dentists are gradually phasing out its use.  This is a matter of  personal choice to ensure that our patients are not exposed to unnecessary health risk but is definitely a good news for concerned patients with old amalgam fillings.

High Powered Magnification

In all phases of general dentistry, the increased visual detail provided by high magnification reduces ambiguity in diagnosis and treatment decision-making, increases control in treatment implementation, allows a dentist to produce more ergonomic restorations that are less prone to recurrent decay, and arguably improves clinical outcomes compared to work performed with unaided vision. High magnification enhances a dentist’s ability to diagnose caries and cracks in teeth, distinguish between different colors intraorally, detect the interfaces between different surfaces and materials, detect microscopic interferences in fixed and removable metal frameworks, adjust occlusal prematurities, and polish restorations. This article explains specific general dental applications for high-powered magnification in restorative dentistry, fixed and removable prosthodontics, endodontics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics, and oral surgery. Most dentists use the naked eye to acquire visual information when treating patients. It can be argued, however, that in many clinical situations, unaided vision and even low-powered magnification (such as 2.5x) will not provide a dentist with all of the clinically relevant visual information needed to diagnose and treat dental pathology rationally.The ability to perceive microscopic details provided by high-powered magnification (4x–6x or greater) may improve a dentist’s ability to deliver optimal dental therapy, which also may quantifiably improve treatment outcomes such as tooth lifespan and patient satisfaction.
There are several general reasons why high-powered magnification provides more clinically relevant visual information to general dentists than unaided vision. Dental caries is a disease that originates at the microscopic level. It is associated with microscopic risk factors such as tiny plaque or food traps and features microscopic manifestations of disease, including thin demineralized grooves, tiny discolorations on a tooth surface, and pinpoint breaks in tooth structure that may lead to extensive decay. High magnification reveals these aspects of dental caries. Intraoral prosthetic devices have minimal tolerance of fit and microscopic interferences may prevent crowns, bridges, and removable partial denture frameworks from seating fully. These interferences may be located on the metal understructures of fixed or removable prostheses; they also may result from subtle convexities or undercuts on the teeth where these prostheses are to be seated.
High magnification improves a dentist’s ability to differentiate between subtle shades of color intraorally, which is important when diagnosing and treating dental pathology. Finally, loupes or microscopes with a long working distance allow dentists to maintain a longer distance from the patient during dental work, improving the dentist’s posture and reducing the risk of exposure to aerosols and spatter.High magnification can aid in examining, diagnosing, and treatment planning; in addition, high magnification in combination with a microscope or loupes attached to a digital camera makes it possible to document a patient’s dental condition.5 It allows a dentist to locate tiny, clinically relevant discolored areas on a tooth (for example, within transilluminated Class III interproximal surfaces) and to detect tiny gaps in restorations or crowns when using an explorer. When performing operative dentistry, dentists can use high magnification to see the subtle color contrasts between carious and healthy tooth structure on a microscopic scale. High magnification is helpful in assuring dentists that caries has been entirely removed from the margins of the future restoration.High magnification is useful when preparing crown and bridge abutments and seating restorations particularly in evaluating undercuts.High magnification aids in detecting supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus biofilms.When extracting a tooth, dentists can use high magnification to sense and fully exploit all of the potential purchase points of the straight elevator. Dentists can sense subtle or microscopic differences in the angles and directions of tooth movement while luxating.Magnification also allows dentists to better identify anatomical landmarks within the pulp chamber—including the sides, overhanging walls that are remnants of the pulp chamber roof, and initial perforations into the pulp—and to differentiate between the pulp horns and the main body of pulp within the chamber. Magnification aids in locating the mesiobuccal-2 canal and other accessory canals of maxillary molars. High magnification is essential for seeing cracks or craze lines that are too subtle to see with unaided vision and for helping dentists to determine the cause of general sensitivity (pulpal pathology, high restoration, or a crack) while chewing.High levels of magnification increase the aggregate amount of visual information available to dentists for diagnosing and treating dental pathology, which may allow dentists to develop ways of solving a given dental problem that differ from those used by dentists who use unaided vision. Dentists who use high magnification may be able to develop expertise at an accelerated rate. Dentists who use high magnification may diagnose and treat dental pathology with greater complexity and are more likely to be certain about the causes of a patient’s symptoms, compared to dentists who use unaided vision.

Rotory Endodontics

Rotory endo

Chemo-mechanical preparation is an integral part of conservative root canal treatment . However, during the last decade several new types of continuously rotating instruments were introduced. The evolution from hand- to engine-driven techniques was facilitated by manufacturing rotary instruments from nickel–titanium with its array of special properties . Initially, hand instruments were fabricated from nickel– titanium.Initially Nickel–titanium files, particularly the engine-driven types,were prone to fractures. Various test for Torque measurements cyclic fatigue tests, torsional moments and forces exerted during actual canal preparation were carried out using straight canals . However, nickel–titanium instruments are particularly helpful for successful shaping of curved canals. Several studies using simulated canals in plastic blocks have repeatedly proved that canal anatomy influences the performance of instruments .
To date, several torque-controlled low-speed motors have been introduced to help reduce the incidence of separation when using rotary instruments (TriAuto ZX, Morita, Dietzenbach, Switzerland; Endostepper, S.E.T., Germering, Germany; ART-Teknika, Dentsply Maillefer).The efficacy of torque-controlled motors can be improved by relying on data collected during canal preparation.

Need for healthy gums

Posted in General Dentistry by UK Dental Tourism on September 11, 2009
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Bacterial plaque is the main cause of gum disease.    There are many other contributing factors that can affect even those with immaculate home care.

1. Stress
2. Smoking/tobacco use
3. Genetics
4. Diabetes
5. Clenching or grinding your teeth
6. Puberty, pregnancy and menopause in women
7. Medications

Since gum disease is a bacterial infection of the bone and tissue surrounding the teeth, leaving the disease untreated can lead to:

* Bone loss around the teeth
* Loose teeth
* Eventual loss of teeth

Here are some other reasons to treat your gum condition.  Periodontal (gum) disease has been linked to the following:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Diabetes
* COPD
* Preterm, low birth weight babies in mothers with gum disease

All these health problems are linked to periodontal disease.  By treating gum disease, you may see an improvement in your overall health as well, especially if you have a history of diabetes or heart disease.


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