Himachal Dental

Brighten your smile in less time with Lumineers

To most people it is important to save time, and finding time for regular dental appointments. It is essential for people to maintain their teeth, as it has a massive impact on a persons appearance.


Lumineer treatment allows porcelain veneer treatment faster than the average porcelain veneer treatment, so it can be completed within one appointment.
Once Lumineers are created, they are securely fitted straight onto the front of a patients teeth, to conceal and cover damaged, broken or discoloured teeth.




Tooth Decay to Be a Thing of the Past?

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on December 17, 2010
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The Groningen professors Bauke Dijkstra and Lubbert Dijkhuizen have deciphered the structure and functional mechanism of the glucansucrase enzyme that is responsible for dental plaque sticking to teeth. This knowledge will stimulate the identification of substances that inhibit the enzyme. Just add that substance to toothpaste, or even sweets, and caries will be a thing of the past.

The results of the research have been published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

The University of Groningen researchers analysed glucansucrase from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri, which is present in the human mouth and digestive tract. The bacteria use the glucansucrase enzyme to convert sugar from food into long, sticky sugar chains. They use this glue to attach themselves to tooth enamel. The main cause of tooth decay, the bacterium Streptococcus mutans, also uses this enzyme. Once attached to tooth enamel, these bacteria ferment sugars releasing acids that dissolve the calcium in teeth. This is how caries develops.

Three dimensional structure

Using protein crystallography, the researchers were able to elucidate the three dimensional (3D) structure of the enzyme. The Groningen researchers are the first to succeed in crystallizing glucansucrase. The crystal structure has revealed that the folding mechanism of the protein is unique. The various domains of the enzyme are not formed from a single, linear amino acid chain but from two parts that assemble via a U-shaped structure of the chain; this is the first report on such a folding mechanism in the literature.

Functional mechanism

The unravelling of the 3D structure provided the researchers with detailed insight into the functional mechanism of the enzyme. The enzyme splits sucrose into fructose and glucose and then adds the glucose molecule to a growing sugar chain. Thus far the scientific community assumed that both processes were performed by different parts of the enzyme. However, the model created by the Groningen researchers has revealed that both activities occur in the same active site of the enzyme.


Dijkhuizen expects that specific inhibitors for the glucansucrase enzyme may help to prevent attachment of the bacteria to the tooth enamel. Information about the structure and functional mechanism of the enzyme is crucial for developing such inhibitors. Thus far, such research has not been successful, states Dijkhuizen: ‘The various inhibitors studied not only blocked the glucansucrase, but also the digestive enzyme amylase in our saliva, which is needed to degrade starch.’


The crystal structure also provides an explanation for this double inhibition. The data published by the Groningen scientists shows that glucansucrase proteins most likely evolved from amylase enzymes that degrade starch. ‘We already knew that the two enzymes were similar’, says Dijkhuizen, ‘but the crystal structure revealed that the active sites are virtually identical. Future inhibitors thus need to be directed towards very specific targets because both enzymes are evolutionary closely related.’

Toothpaste and sweets

Dijkhuizen points out that in future glucansucrase inhibitors may be added to toothpaste and mouthwash. ‘But it may even be possible to add them to sweets’, he suggests. ‘An inhibitor might prevent that sugars released in the mouth cause damage.’ However, Dijkhuizen doesn’t expect that toothbrushes have had their day: ‘it will always be necessary to clean your teeth.’ ScienceDaily (Dec. 4, 2010)

Taste Genes Can Predict Tooth Decay

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on September 30, 2010

Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease that is disproportionately distributed in the population. Caries occurrence and progression is known to be influenced by a complex interplay of both environmental and genetic factors, with numerous contributing factors having been identified including bacterial flora, dietary habits, fluoride exposure, oral hygiene, salivary flow, salivary composition, and tooth structure. Previous reports have characterized the influence of the genetic variation on taste preferences and dietary habits.

In an article published in the Journal of Dental Research titled “Taste Genes Associated with Dental Caries” lead researcher Steven Wendell and researchers Melissa Brown, Margaret Cooper, Rebecca DeSensi, Mary Marazita, Xiaojing Wang and Robert Weyant, all from the University of Pittsburgh; and Richard Crout and Daniel McNeil from West Virginia University, hypothesized that genetic variation in taste pathway genes (TAS2R38, TAS1R2, GNAT3) may be associated with dental caries risk and/or protection.

In this study, families were recruited by the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) for collection of biological samples, demographic data and clinical assessment of oral health including caries scores. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for each gene were performed and analyzed using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis (FBAT software) for three dentition groups: primary, mixed, and permanent. Statistically significant associations were seen in TAS2R38 and TAS1R2 for caries risk and/or protection.

“This work is significant in that it identifies key genes that may explain the susceptibilities of some patients to tooth decay,” said JDR Editor-in-Chief William Giannobile. “Although an early study, this breakthrough on taste pathways and genes demonstrates how patient preferences that are genetically predetermined may put patients at risk for disease.”ScienceDaily

Making Stem Cells From Wisdom Teeth

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on September 17, 2010

For most people, wisdom teeth are not much more than an annoyance that eventually needs to be removed. However, a new study appearing in the Sept. 17 Journal of Biological Chemistry shows that wisdom teeth contain a valuable reservoir of tissue for the creation of stem cells; thus, everyone might be carrying around his or her own personal stem-cell repository should he or she ever need some.

Groundbreaking research back in 2006 revealed that inducing the activity of four genes in adult cells could “reprogram” them back into a stem-cell-like state; biologically, these induced-pluripotent stem cells are virtually identical to embryonic stem cells, opening up a new potential avenue for stem-cell therapy whereby patients could be treated with their own stem cells.

However, despite their promise, making iPS cells is not easy; the reprogramming efficiencies are very low and vary among the cells that can be used for iPS generation and thus require good amount of “starter” cells — which might involve difficult extraction from body tissue (unfortunately skin cells, the easiest to acquire, show very low reprogramming efficiency).

Now, a team of scientists at Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology may have found an ideal source: third molars, commonly known as wisdom teeth.

The soft pulp inside of teeth contains a population of cells known as mesenchymal stromal cells that are similar to cells found in bone marrow, a common stem-cell source. However, unlike bone marrow, tooth pulp is more easily obtained, especially in wisdom teeth, which most individuals have removed anyway.

The researchers, led by Hajime Ohgushi, collected tooth samples from three donors and managed to generate a series of iPS cell lines following the similar procedure of activating three key genes (however, in another beneficial change they did not have activate the c-MYC gene which might lead the cells to become cancerous).

The different cell lines displayed varying degrees of robustness but in some cases proliferated quite well, up to 100 times more efficiently than typical skin-cell-derived iPS cells. The molar-derived cells also could differentiate into many other cell types including beating cardiomyocytes (see an attached movie), as expected.

The presence of a supply of MSCs in wisdom teeth could have meaningful therapeutic ramifications. As noted by the researchers and others, wisdom tooth extraction is a common medical procedure in developed nations and, thus, creates a perfect opportunity to remove biological material in a sterilized setting; the teeth subsequently can be frozen and stored for many years until needed. In the meantime, that also provides time for researchers to better understand the details of iPS creation to further increase the efficiency for clinical use. Source : ScienceDaily (Sep. 10, 2010)

Today, September 12th Is World Oral Health Day

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on September 12, 2010

The American Dental Association (ADA) joins with the FDI World Dental Federation, the worldwide voice of the dental profession, in observance of the annual “World Oral Health Day” Sept.12. The purpose of this day is to increase global awareness for oral health, as well as the impact of oral diseases on general health and well-being.

The date marks the anniversary of the FDI World Dental Federation and their groundbreaking International Conference on Primary Health Care, which was held on September 12, 1978. In addition the date honors Dr. Charles Godon, the FDI founder, who was born Sept. 12, 1854.According to the FDI, Sept. 12 was chosen to coincide with existing oral health days around the world, to honor the FDI founder, Dr. Charles Godon, who was born on Sept.12, 1854, and to jointly celebrate the anniversary of the groundbreaking World Health Organization’s International Conference on Primary Health Care at Alma Ata, Kazakhstan , taking place on Sept. 12, 1978.

Throughout the world, dental caries or tooth decay is the most common chronic disease, particularly affecting children and disadvantaged populations. Dental disease results in unnecessary pain and suffering, and missed work or school days. Periodontal or gum diseases have been associated with diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcomes and other systemic ailments. Untreated tooth decay seriously affects a person’s quality of life.

Each and every one of us, as dentists and citizens, as professional associations and public health advocates, are able to contribute to better oral health worldwide. Let us on this  World Oral Health Day join together to recognise that oral health is a vital part of wellbeing for all, celebrate the progress we have made to date, but at the same time commit ourselves to continue working towards better oral health for all.

New Approach For Treating Tooth Hypersensitivity

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on September 9, 2010

Recently NYU College of Dentistry researchers have identified a promising new approach for treating tooth hypersensitivity, while simultaneously preventing bacteria from causing further harm. Most toothpastes, protective strips and other treatments for tooth hypersensitivity utilize potassium oxalate to close the tubules. However, potassium oxalate cannot prevent a recurrence of tooth hypersensitivity because it is highly susceptible to the effects of acids in tartar, plaque, citrus drinks and other liquids.

In the NYU dental study, a coating made from fluoride and zinc ions in a calcium-phosphate matrix proved effective in reversing damage to the tubules caused by Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium commonly associated with tooth decay. The coating not only caused the exposed tubules to close again, but also prevented Streptococcus mutans from causing further damage.

Co-prinicipal investigators Dr Racquel Z. LeGeros, Professor and Associate Chair of Biomaterials & Biomimetics at the NYU College of Dentistry, and Dr Haijin Gu, Chief Dentist at Sun-yat-sen University Guanghua School of Stomatology in Guangzhuo, China, compared two groups of dentin samples immersed for 24 hours in a solution containing Streptococcus mutans. One group was treated with the calcium-phosphate/fluoride/zinc formulation for eight minutes, while the second group received no treatment. Bacteria multiplied on the untreated samples, but their growth and development was inhibited on the treated dentin. In addition, the treated group had significantly fewer open tubules than the untreated one.

“Because the calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions formed a solution that occluded the open dentin tubules, and the zinc ions inhibited bacterial growth and colonization, our findings suggest that this formulation may represent a tooth hypersensitivity treatment that is less susceptible to the effects of acid than treatments made with potassium oxalate,” said Dr LeGeros, who plans additional testing to confirm the findings.

Tooth hypersensitivity occurs when the dentin, which lies just below the surface of the tooth, becomes exposed, causing tubules―tiny structures that transmit stimuli to the tooth nerve―to open up. When open tubules come in contact with cold, hot, sweet, or acidic substances, painful stimuli are transmitted to the tooth nerve. Typically, hypersensitivity is caused by oral bacteria, which attach to the tooth surface and leave an acidic residue of tartar and plaque.

Nano coating raises hopes in fighting antibiotic resistance

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on August 26, 2010

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a major problem in the fight against hospital-related infections. Researchers from New York and Albany in the United States have now reported the successful testing of a new nanoscale coating that can be used for surgical equipment or hospital walls and kills even super-resistant bugs like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within 20 minutes of contact.
Cold plasma jets found useful against oral bacteria Asian superbug causes trouble worldwide

MRSA is a bacteria-strain usually found on the skin and sometimes nasal passages of healthy people from where it can find its way into the body through cuts or healthcare-related equipment like catheters and breathing tubes. Infections caused by MRSA are difficult to treat because they do not respond to antibiotics used to treat staph infections such as penicillin or cephalosporin. In countries like the UK, more than 1,000 patients die of MRSA-related infections per year.

The new coating, which is based on a natural enzyme called lysostaphin, can be used with any type of surface furnishes the researchers said. In a field test, they mixed it with ordinary latex house paint, which was used to paint a number of walls in the Albany Medical College. They found that lysostaphin, which is only toxic to MRSA, works by first attaching itself to the bacterial cell wall and then kills it by slicing it open.

“It’s very effective. If you put a tiny amount of lysostaphin in a solution with Staphylococcus aureus, you’ll see the bacteria die almost immediately,” said Ravi Kane, a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. “At the end of the day, we have a very selective agent that can be used in a wide range of environments—paints, coating, medical instruments, door knobs, surgical masks—and it’s active and it’s stable.”

Kane added that the coating has a dry storage shelf life of up to six months and can be washed repeatedly without loosing effectiveness.

Gel That Can Regenerate Tooth Tissue

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on July 1, 2010

After testing their idea on cell cultures and laboratory mice, scientists in France suggest that a new biomaterial shown to regenerate bone could be used as a gel inserted in tooth cavities to encourage tooth regeneration, thus avoiding the need to drill and fill the teeth.

The study was the work of co-author Dr Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, a scientist at the Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Faculty of Medicine in Strasbourg, France

The purpose of the gel would be to control cavities after they develop, it was not like toothpaste, so people would still need to keep brushing and flossing to prevent the cavities in the first place, reported Discovery News.

Dentists save millions of teeth every year by drilling and filling and doing root canal therapy, and there is a high rate of success in such procedures, but the researchers hypothesized that a better approach might be to remove decayed or diseased dental pulp and replace it with healthy tissue that revitalizes teeth.

For the patient this could be an attractive alternative because it would mean no more drilling: just a quick dab of gel on the infected tooth and it would heal from within, said Berkirane-Jessel. However, the researchers also said the method would probably only work for a small number of cases: most cavities would still have to be drilled and filled.

The researchers decided to try a version of a peptide called MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone), that had already been shown to regenerate bone. The version they used is called PGA-a-MSH, a chemical combination of poly-l-glutamic acid (PGL) and alpha-MSH.

They tested the biomaterial on cultures of human dental pulp fibroblasts, the cells that produce the collagen and other extra-cellular materials that form the structure of new tissue, and found it had “potential effects in promoting human pulp fibroblast adhesion and cell proliferation”.

They concluded that:

“Our results indicated clearly that, by using PGA-a-MSH, we increase not only the viability of cells but also the proliferation.”

When they did a nanoscale examination of the new tissue using atomic force microscopy they found an increase in the thickness and roughness of its structure that was consistent with an “increase of the proliferation of the cells growing on the surface of these architectures”.

“We report here the first use of nanostructured and functionalized multilayered films containing a-MSH as a new active biomaterial for endodontic regeneration,” they added.  For more info please visit  Medical News Today

Link Between Periodontal Disease and Prostatitis

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on April 29, 2010

Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine and University Hospitals Case Medical Center report initial results from a small sample that inflammation from gum disease and prostate problems just might be linked. They discuss their new evidence in the Journal of Periodontology, the official journal of the American Academy of Periodontology.

The researchers compared two markers: the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) used to measure inflammation levels in prostate disease, and clinical attachment level (CAL) of the gums and teeth, which can be an indicator for periodontitis.

A PSA elevation of 4.0 ng/ml in the blood can be a sign of inflammation or malignancy. Patients with healthy prostate glands have lower than 4.0ng/ml levels. A CAL number greater than 2.7 mm indicates periodontitis.

Like prostatitis, periodontitis also produces high inflammation levels.

“Subjects with both high CAL levels and moderate to severe prostatitis have higher levels of PSA or inflammation,” This might explain why PSA levels can be high in prostatitis, but sometimes cannot be explained by what is happening in the prostate glands.

“It is something outside the prostate gland that is causing an inflammatory reaction,” he said.

Because periodontitis has been linked to heart disease, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, the researchers felt a link might exist to prostate disease.

Thirty-five men from a sample of 150 patients qualified for the study, funded by the department of periodontology at the dental school. The participants were selected from patients at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center with mild to severe prostatitis, who had undergone needle biopsies and were found to have inflammation and in some patients, malignancies.

The participants were divided into two groups: those with high PSA levels for moderate or severe prostatitis or a malignancy and those with PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. All had not had dental work done for at least three months and were given an examination to measure the gum health.

Looking at the results, the researchers from the dental school and the department of urology and the Institute of Pathology at the hospital found those with the most severe form of the prostatitis also showed signs for periodontitis  – ScienceDaily (Apr. 28, 2010)

Cadent iTero : Digital Impression System

Posted in Dental News by UK Dental Tourism on February 20, 2010

The Cadent iTero is a digital imaging system that eliminates the need for impressions for fixed prosthetics. The penetration in dentistry of these types of devices is pretty low currently, but we can foresee big things for the iTero.

The Cadent iTero digital impression system takes a highly accurate virtual 3d impression of patients’ crown or bridge area, ensuring an accurate model quickly, eliminating the uncomfortable tray and putty impression.It features parallel confocal imaging,which uses laser and opticl scanning to digitally capture the surface and contours of toothand gingival surfaces.The iTero software guides users through every step of scanning process.The time to complete the scanning sequence routinely requires just 3 to 5 minutes.And with no time devoted to preparing impression trays or clean up, the time saving is predictable.Most importantly the unmatched precision of iTero crowns requires minimal adjustment. Infact 90% of their restorations are being seated with no adjustments.That is a huge advantage over traditional methodologies. If that proves to be the case, we will begin to shrink our impression material inventory.

Patient acceptance? Outstanding. Not having to suffer through impressions is a big plus for patients.With iTero patients become engaged in the process as they see their dental work on screen.Biggest of all ,the expenses and hassles associted with putty and trays will be a thing of the past as digital impressions eliminate the need for mixing materials.

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